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The Notebook is well-known as one of the most romantic films of all time.众所周知,《恋恋笔记本》是有史以来最浪漫的电影之一。So it’s about time that a wannabe groom decided to pop the question using inspiration from the famous movie.正因为此,一位准新郎决定从这部电影里借取灵感向女友求婚。Italian Angelo Piccini hired a private lake in Alexandra Palace, north London, and filled it with 1000 origami swans to propose to his girlfriend, Chiara Grimaldi.意大利男子安吉洛·比奇尼在伦敦北部的亚历山大宫租用了一片私人湖区,湖里满放着1000只折纸天鹅,以此向他的女友基娅拉·格里马尔迪求婚。The gesture was a reference to the famous scene in the Hollywood movie where Noah, played by Ryan Gosling, took his love Allie, played by Rachel McAdams, on a boat ride to a beautiful lake that was filled with swans.这番场景布置的灵感来自那部著名好莱坞电影中的镜头,在电影中,瑞恩·高斯林扮演的诺亚将自己心爱的姑娘、瑞秋·麦克亚当斯饰演的艾丽带去湖上泛舟,湖水里游满了天鹅,场景非常美丽。Although the effect wasn#39;t quite as spectacular as the blockbuster movie, from the look on Chiara#39;s face she certainly appreciated the gesture.虽然现实效果不如电影大片那样唯美,但是从基娅拉的表情来看,她确实很喜欢这番布置。Angelo then asked his friends and family to hold up signs which contained the words, #39;Chiara, Will You Marry Me? You are the one.#39;接着,安吉洛请自己的朋友和亲人举起一组牌子,牌子上写着“基娅拉,你愿意嫁给我吗?你是我的唯一。”During the , Chiara is also seen being serenaded by a singer - the woman sings the Italian#39;s favourite songs as she walks alongside them on the banks of the lake.在他们拍摄的视频中,还有人为基娅拉演唱了一小夜曲——一位女士在湖岸上,一边缓步走着,一边唱着那位意大利女郎最爱的歌曲。And luckily all of Angelo#39;s planning was not in vain.幸运的是,安吉洛所有这些精心准备并没有白费。During the proposal, he tells Chiara: #39;When we are together, everything is possible. Together everything is doable.#39; #39;I did this because when I met you, one year ago more or less, my life changed.#39;在他向基娅拉求婚的时候,他对女友说:“当我们在一起的时候,没有什么事是不可能的,没有什么事是办不到的。”“我现在向你求婚是因为,当一年前我遇到你之后,我的生活彻底改变了。”He then presented her with a diamond ring and she accepted his proposal.接着他将一枚钻石戒指送到她面前,而她接受了他的求婚。 /201501/356298James Merrill was born rich, as he said, “whether I liked it or not”. His father Charles, who co-founded brokerage firm Merrill Lynch, had given him a trust fund. It bought James time. Free from the need to earn, he conducted seances with the spirit world and wrote poetry. In a new biography, Langdon Hammer describes how Merrill’s transcripts of 40 years of seances morphed into the great 560-page poem, “The Changing Light at Sandover”.詹姆斯#8226;梅利尔(James Merrill)生来富有,正如他所说的“不管我喜欢与否”。他的父亲查尔斯(Charles)与人联合创建了券商美林(Merrill Lynch),他给了詹姆斯一只信托基金。这给詹姆斯赢得了时间。由于不需要赚钱,他开始与亡灵世界对话、写诗。在一部新的传记中,兰登#8226;汉莫(Langdon Hammer)描写了梅利尔的40年通灵会笔记如何变成一部伟大的560页诗集:《桑多弗变换着的光》(The Changing Light at Sandover)。Merrill, who died in 1995, is an early example of what you might call a HNWI artist (after the wealth managers’ acronym for “high net worth individual”). HNWI art is going to become much more common. That will help the next generation answer a pressing question: what to do with the growing tribe of HNWI heirs?梅利尔于1995年去世,他是一个人们可能称之为“高净值人士”(财富经理的专业用语)艺术家的早期例子。高净值人士艺术将变得更为普遍。那将有助于下一代人回答一个紧迫的问题:该拿人数日益增多的高净值人群的继承人怎么办?Because art rarely pays, each society has to find a way to fund artists. In the Middle Ages, kings acted as patrons. Until the financial crisis, American universities routinely gave poets teaching jobs. And now we have HNWI heirs.由于艺术很少足以维持生计,因此每个社会都必须设法资助艺术家。在中世纪,国王充当赞助者。在此次金融危机之前,美国大学经常给诗人一份教师工作。如今我们有了富二代。Most HNWIs missed the crisis. Since 2008, their numbers have grown at a compound annual rate of 10 per cent, according to Capgemini’s World Wealth Report. In 2013, there were 13.7 million HNWIs worldwide with investable assets of at least m.多数高净值人士没有受到金融危机的影响。根据凯捷集团(Capgemini)的全球财富报告(World Wealth Report),自2008年以来,他们的人数以每年10%的复合率增长。2013年,全球共有1370万位高净值人士,其可投资资产至少有100万美元。Of course, 90 per cent of HNWIs are just scraping by — mere “millionaires next door”, with assets of only m-m, says Capgemini. Still, if the average HNWI has two children, then even factoring out humbler HNWIs, that still leaves several million heirs who won’t need to work for money. These people will need to answer the James Merrill question: what to do with all that education, ambition and time? We will need to keep them occupied.当然,凯捷表示,90%的高净值人士只是勉强符合标准,只不过是“邻家的百万富翁”,其资产仅有100万至500万美元。然而,如果高净值人士平均有两个子女,那么即便剔除较为寒酸的高净值人士,仍会有数百万富二代不需要为了谋生而工作。这些人需要找到“詹姆斯#8226;梅利尔问题”的:所有那些教育、雄心和时间该投入什么地方?我们需要让他们有事可做。Previous generations didn’t have this problem. Historically, most HNWIs were aristocrats who considered activity vulgar and, anyway, had a penchant for drinking their wealth. Frequent revolutions helped winnow their tribe: a Russian prince might end up driving a Parisian taxi. Hefty inheritance taxes winnowed further.之前几代人没有这个问题。历史上,多数高净值人士是贵族,他们将任何经济活动斥为粗俗,再说他们本来就倾向于花天酒地。多次革命帮助这个人群进行了筛选:一位俄罗斯王子到最后可能在驾驶一辆巴黎出租车。巨额遗产税对这个人群进行了进一步的筛选。But, for now, life is kinder to HNWIs. Their children therefore need to decide what to do. One billionaire’s son told me he saw no point in following his father into moneymaking. In fact, few HNWI heirs are itching to wake up early and do boring entry-level jobs. “Inherited wealth is a mixed blessing,” billionaire philanthropist Sigrid Rausing told The Irish Times. “Unconsciously, it can feel like all types of professions are not for you.”然而,就目前而言,生活对于高净值人士比较友好。因此他们的子女需要决定做什么。一位亿万富翁的儿子告诉我,他认为继承父业、忙于赚钱毫无意义。实际上,几乎没有富二代愿意很早起床,做枯燥的入门级工作。“继承财富是一件好坏参半的事情,”亿万富翁慈善家西格丽德#8226;罗辛(Sigrid Rausing)告诉《爱尔兰时报》(Irish Times),“下意识里,你可能会感觉所有的职业都不适合你。”Some HNWI heirs will devote their lives to philanthropy. However, this is usually a waste of time. It’s smarter to donate to an existing charity (as Warren Buffett gives to the Gates Foundation) rather than setting up your own organisation that will need a learning curve and probably duplicate work that others do better.一些高净值人士的继承人会毕生投入慈善事业。然而,这通常是浪费时间。更为明智的做法是把钱捐给现有的慈善组织(就像沃伦#8226;巴菲特(Warren Buffett)向盖茨基金会(Gates Foundation)捐赠一样),而不是创办自己的慈善组织,后者需要学习曲线以及很可能是重复性的、其他人做得更好的工作。Some HNWI heirs will buy political offices. Others will waste their lives like old-style aristos. But most want high-status work that leaves scope for long holidays. Art is the obvious solution.一些富二代会用钱买公职。还有一些人会像昔日的贵族那样虚度光阴。但多数人想要高地位的工作,有大把时间度假。艺术是显而易见的出路。Some HNWI heirs will become artistic patrons. Rhapsody, the literary magazine for ed Airlines’ first-class and business passengers, is a mechanism for converting HNWI wealth into fees for serious writers.一些富二代将变成艺术赞助人。面向美国联合航空(ed Airlines)头等舱以及商务舱乘客的文学杂志《Rhapsody》,提供了一个机制,帮助将高净值人群财富转化为给严肃作家的报酬。Other HNWI heirs will make bad art. A friend once asked the daughter of a famous European family the ultimate middle-class question: “What do you do?” She replied: “I make combustible art.” “Err, what?” asked my friend. “I make sculptures,” she explained, “then I burn them.” “I’d like to see some one day,” he said politely. “You can’t,” she replied patiently. “I burn them.”还有一些高净值人士的继承人会创作糟糕的艺术。一个朋友曾向一个出身欧洲名门的女子提出终极的中产阶级问题:“你做什么的?”她回答:“我创作可燃艺术。”“呃,什么?”我的朋友问。“我创作雕塑”,她解释道,“然后烧了它们。”“我希望有一天看到您的一些作品,”他礼貌地说。“你不会看到,”她耐心地回答,“我会烧了它们。”But some HNWI art will be good. HNWI artists have time to hone their talent, and won’t dissipate it in hack work like us plebs. When I joined the FT as a graduate trainee in 1994, I was told that somebody called Alain de Botton had been offered the same job the year before. But De Botton — whose banker father left him a trust fund reportedly worth #163;200m — had decided to write books instead. He insists he never touched his dad’s money. Still, it presumably made artistic life feel secure.但一些高净值人士的艺术将是优秀之作。高净值人士艺术家有时间磨练才华,而且不像我们这些常人这样把天分耗在打工上。1994年,当我作为毕业实习生加入英国《金融时报》时,我被告知,前一年,一个名为阿兰#8226;德波顿(Alain de Botton)的人曾经获得这份工作。但德波顿决定出书,他的家父亲留给他一只信托基金,据报道价值2亿英镑。他坚持说,他从未碰过父亲的钱。话虽如此,这样的财力后盾想必让他的艺术生涯有保障。Similarly, American writer Andrew Solomon (whose ultra-HNWI father Howard was a pharmaceutical mogul) could afford to spend 11 years writing his book Far From the Tree. Other contemporary HNWI artists include Brazilian film-maker Walter Salles, from an old banking family, and posh English novelist Edward St Aubyn. His books recount an unhappy childhood on a big estate. That will become a classic theme of HNWI art. This may seem a limitation. But when the educated middle classes dominated artistic production, they, too, left out most of life. George Orwell lamented the scarcity of “proletarian novels”. De Botton notes that even middle-class working life rarely features in literature. Most literary characters, he complains, “fall in love and have sex and#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;never go to the office”. Being a HNWI with time to rectify these matters, De Botton visited many offices to research his book on work. HNWI art has its drawbacks. But it will keep a lot of potentially dangerous people off the streets.类似的,美国作家安德鲁#8226;所罗门(Andrew Solomon)或许有条件花费11年撰写他的著作《那些与众不同的孩子》(Far From the Tree),他的父亲霍华德(Howard)是一位超高净值人士、一位医药业大亨。还有一些高净值人士当代艺术家,包括巴西电影制片人沃尔特#8226;萨勒斯(Walter Salles,来自古老的业家族)以及优雅的英国小说家爱德华#8226;圣#8226;奥宾(Edward St Aubyn)。他的小说讲述的是巨大庄园里的不快乐童年。这将成为高净值人士艺术的经典主题。这似乎存在局限性。但当受过教育的中产阶级主宰艺术创作时,他们也遗漏了人生的大部分主题。乔治#8226;奥威尔(George Orwell)曾哀叹“无产阶级小说”的缺乏。德波顿指出,就连中产阶级的工作生活也很少出现在文学作品中。他抱怨道,多数文学人物“相爱,然后做爱……从来不去办公室”。身为一个有时间矫正这些问题的高净值人士,德波顿拜访了很多办公室,为他有关工作的著作进行研究。高净值人士艺术有其缺陷,但它会让很多潜在危险的人远离街头。 /201505/377157

How To Make Friends: This Will Subtly Help People Open Up怎样交朋友:无形之中帮你变外向When people tell each other something intimate, it deepens the relationship.当人们告诉彼此很亲密的一些事情的时候,能够加深相互之间的感情。Laughter encourages people to open up and this is the secret to how to make friends, a new study finds.一项新研究发现,笑声能鼓励人们变得外向起来,这就是交朋友的秘诀。People in the study were more likely to disclose something personal about themselves after laughing together, although they didn#39;t realise it.这项研究中的人更能在一起大笑过后更能说一些私人的话题,尽管他们并没有意识到这一点。;Self-disclosure has long been regarded as critical to relationship development and is typically considered as an exchange, where intimacies are traded as a means of deepening and developing relationships.;自我公开好久以来就被认为是人际关系发展的至关重要的因素,通常会被当做交换,亲密是用来被交换的加深和发展人家关系的手段。;Indeed, people tend to like those to whom they disclose as well as those who disclose to them, and disclosure intimacy typically increases as relationships develop.;确实,人们往往喜欢那些开诚布公的或者对自己讲很多的人,通常将亲密讲出来人际关系会更加牢固。So the study may explain one way that laughter can help people connect.因此,这项研究或许解释笑声帮助人们加强联系的一种方式。How to make friends如何交朋友?For the research, published in the journal Human Nature, 112 people watched one of three s in groups of four (Gray et al., 2015).在《人类自然》杂志中刊登的这项研究,112人分四组观看了三部影像之中的一部(Gray et al., 2015)。The researchers were careful to make sure people in the groups were strangers to each other.研究者确保这些人都是彼此不认识的人。Some groups watched a comedian, another a boring golf and a third a nature documentary.一组观看了一个喜剧演员,另一组看了一部令人厌烦的高尔夫视频,第三组看了一部自然纪录片。The results showed that when the groups laughed together more, they also shared more intimate information with each other.结果显示当人们在一起笑的越多,他们彼此分享的亲密的信息也越多。Alan Gray, who led the study, thinks the effect is about more than just feeling good.领导这项研究的Alan Gray,认为结果再好不过了。Laughter releases the #39;happy hormones#39; endorphins, which are what may encourage people to share intimate details of their lives.大笑能够减轻;开心的荷尔蒙;内啡肽,这或许能鼓励人们分享生活中亲密的细节。The authors write:作者写道:;Given laughter#39;s ability to trigger endorphin activation and the role of endorphins in the formation of social bonds, laughter may increase willingness to disclose intimate information because the opioid effect of endorphins makes individuals more relaxed about what they communicate.;;笑声能够触发内啡肽的活性和内啡肽在社交联系形成汇中的作用。大笑能够增加公开个人亲密信息的意愿,因为医内啡肽的类鸦片作用使得个人对他们交流的内容更加放松。;One of the fascinating findings of the study was that people did not seem aware they had shared more with others.这项研究的一个大有吸引力的发现就是人们似乎没有意识到他们跟别人分享了很多。Although objective observers rated the disclosures of people who#39;d been laughing as more intimate, people themselves did not.尽管客观的观察者责骂人们公开大笑时泄露的秘密,但是当事人自己不这么认为。Mr Gray said:Gray 先生说:;This seems to be in line with the notion that laughter is linked specifically to fostering behaviors that encourage relationship development, since observer ratings of disclosure may be more important for relationship development than how much one feels one is disclosing.;似乎这跟笑声与培养鼓励人际关系发展行为的理念是一致的,因为比起人们觉得他们在泄密,观察者对于泄密的控诉或许对于人际关系发展更重要。;These results suggest that laughter should be a serious topic for those interested in the development of social relationships.;这些结论表明那些对社交关系发展感兴趣的人,对他们而言,笑声应该成为一个严肃的话题。 /201506/382151

“A Chinese dinner host will sociated with a Chinese will gain‘face’and give‘face #39;to his host.“举办中餐宴会的主人不会指望客人了解与一道中国菜相关的所有传统。但是客人如果了解这样一些传统的话就会有‘面子’,同时也给了主人‘面子’。”Investigating those traditions is business associates will happily tell not expect a visitor to know all the traditions asmeal. But the visitor who knows some of them his host!”part of the fun of a China visit, where friends or you the whys and wherefores of seemingly orcane rituals. You may even hear different versions of how a particular dining tradition originated!调查这些传统是在中国游览过程中一个充满乐趣的部分,中国的朋友或商业合作人会很高兴告诉你看似不可思议的礼仪的由来与原因。你甚至可能听到有关一个就餐传统由来的不同版本!Foreign visitors will be forgiven for not knowing dining etiquette. For example,they will be good-naturedly offered a knife and fork if their chopstick prowess is not up to par. Just as Chinese food,however,seems to taste better when it is eaten with chopsticks,so the whole meal will be more enjoyable if one knows a little of the ancient traditions and beliefs of a 5 000-year-old culinary heritage.外国游客如果不知道就餐礼仪的话会得到谅解;例如倘若他们用筷子的能力还没有达标的话,人们就会和善地给他们提供刀叉。但是,正因为中国食品似乎用筷子食用味道更好,因此如果知道拥有5 000年历史的饮食传统中的一些古老传统和信仰的话,整个进餐就会变得更加富有乐趣了。Why is a fish never turned over? Why do tea-drinkers surreptitiously tap tables Why will there be a place laid for a guest wha will never come Why is it not improper to slurp you soup but improper to eat a fish heady Why are Chinese dinner tables round and how will you know who is the guest of honors How and why will you say“Cheers!”?为什么鱼从不翻过来呢?为什么喝茶的人要悄悄敲下桌子呢?为什么要为一位不来的客人留下位置呢?为什么喝汤时顺嘴是可以的,但是吃鱼头却是不合适的呢?为什么中国的餐桌是圆的?而你怎样知道哪位客人是贵客呢?你怎样“干杯”?为什么要“干杯”?The guest of honor will usually be seated facing the door of entry, directly opposite the host. The next most honored guest will be seated to the left of the guest of honor. If the host is not certain about the correct order of precedence for his guests,he will seat them on the basis of age.贵客通常要面向进门的地方就座并直接面对主人。其次尊贵的客人要坐在贵客的左边。如果主人对客人正确的优光顺序有怀疑的话,他就会按照年龄的顺序安排他们就座。The host sits near the door, as in Western practice,so that he is nearest to the kitchen. If the meal is held in the host#39;s home,he can then bring each dish to the table more quickly. He will himself serve his guests portions of food,on the tacit understanding that they are far too polite to help themselves.主人坐在门的附近,这与西方的做法一样,这样他就离厨房最近。如果是在主人的家中吃饭的话,他就可以更加迅速地将菜送到桌上。他本人也便于给客人添菜,因为他知道客人过于礼貌而不会自己动手夹菜吃。But for some dishes,especially fish,the host would never do so-for the good reason that the dish would be inedibly cool by the end of the service. In this case,each guest is expected to help himself.但是有些菜主人是不会这样做的,尤其是鱼,因为这道菜烧好之后凉了就不好吃了。这时每位客人就要自己动手夹菜吃。As for meal-time noises, they are considered sounds of culinary appreciation,the slurping of soup also being an acceptable way of cooling it down before it burns the tongue.至于吃饭时的响声,这被认为是在享用美食的声音。喝汤时的顺嘴也是可以接受的,因为这样便可以在舌头被汤烫到之前将汤冷却。Seatingamp;Dining Customs就座与就餐的习俗If a Chinese dinner has been arranged in a restaurant, the host will usually sit nearest the kitchen or service door. Then he will be in the least-favored position sitting where the waiter will stand while serving individual portions of food.Some hosts,however, seat their most junior guests or family members at this slightly awkward spot so that the host can talk more easily to guests on either side of him. It is also becoming more common for hosts to sit next to foreign guests of honor.如果是在餐馆中安排中餐宴会的话,主人通常就会坐在距离厨房或上菜的门最近的地方。这样他就会坐在最不好的座位上—务员在上每道菜时都会站在这个座位旁边。但是有些主人会安排地位最低的客人或家庭成员坐在这个有点尴尬的地方,这样主人就可以更方便与他旁边的客人交谈了。对于主人来说,坐在外国贵客旁边也越来越常见了。Should you find yourself in one of the“junior; seats on either side of the server#39;s position,don#39;t worry. Consider the fact that your fellow diners are either even more“important; or older than you and you are honored to be sitting with them,or perhaps your host has flattered you by deciding you are one of the least statusconscious guests!如果你发现自己坐在务员位置旁边的“下”座上的话,要知道和你一起就餐的人要不就是比你更“重要”,要不就是比你年龄更大,而且你和他们坐在一起是很荣幸的。或者你的主人会恭维你是最不在乎身份的客人。At the beginning of the banquet, the host will make a brief speech to welcome the guest. As the guest of honor, you are expected to make a reciprocal speech expressing appreciation and wishes for friendship,cooperation and prosperity.在宴会开始的时候,主人会进行简短的讲话来欢迎客人。作为贵宾,你要相应做一番讲话以表明你的感谢以及希望达成友谊、合作以及繁荣。Chinese table manners include:中国的餐桌礼仪包括:1. Don#39;t“jump the gun;-always eat after your host.1.不要“抢先行动”—总是得在主人吃过之后再开始吃。2. When the host proposes a“gan bei”,or“bottoms up; be careful if you are not a good drinker. Extra care should be taken when liquor is served. One way of getting away from such a situation is to tell your host“sui yi;,which means ; Cheers一but I will drink only a little.”2.当主人提议“干杯”时,要注意你是否是一个酒量很好的人。如果上的是烧酒的话就要格外注意了。避开这种情况的一种方法就是告诉你的主人“随意”,这意味着“干杯……但我只能喝一点”。3. Don#39;t forget to toast your host, wishing him or her good health,friendship ,appreciation and the like3.不要忘记给主人敬酒并祝愿他(她)身体健康,表示友谊万岁、感谢等等。At the end of the banquet, your host may utter typical Chinese modesties such as“Please forgive us for the inconsiderate entertainment; or,;Sorry for the mediocre food.”Don#39;t take it seriously. Go ahead and express your appreciation.在宴会结束的时候,主人可能会说一些中国人典型的谦虚之词,例如“招待不周,敬请原谅”或“粗茶淡饭,还请包涵”等。不要把这话当真,继续表达你的感谢之情。The Guest Gets the Best给客人吃最好的The guest of honor naturally receives the choicest morsels,and is expected to lead the way when necessary. With a fish course,the fish head would be left for the guest of honor-and it is the most nutritious part the eyes and lips are the valued delicacies offered to the senior lady present.The platter holding the fish will always be laid on the table in such a way that the fish head points towards the guest of honor at family meals,the head faces the head of the family .If visitors find that they are the guest of honor and are unwilling to accept the duties invo Ived,they should always delegate the honor to the person on their left, or politely turn the platter so that the fish head faces the host.很自然,贵客要吃最上等的菜肴并且在必要时要首先吃菜。对于一道鱼来说,鱼头要留给贵客吃—而巨这是最有营养的部分(鱼眼睛和嘴唇都是给在场的老年妇女吃的珍贵美食)。装鱼的盘子放在桌子上的方式总是把鱼头指向贵客(在家庭就餐中,鱼头要向着一家之主),如果客人发现自己是贵客并且不愿接受这种招待的话,他们就总会将贵客的头衔转给坐在左边的人,或者礼貌地转动盘子以便使鱼头朝向主人。In a restaurant,the signs that a meal is ending are quite obvious. A bowl of fruit will be presented,fresh towels will be provided for deaning mouths and hands,and the final pot of tea-a ceremonial farewell greeting-will not be refilled.在饭店就餐时,就餐结束的表示是十分明显的。端上来一盆水果,送上新毛巾来擦拭嘴和手,以及不再(这是送别的仪式)添加茶水。Toothpicks牙签The use of toothpicks at a table is another standard practice. As in most Asian countries,the polite way to deal with lodged fragments of food is to cover one#39;s mouth with one hand while the toothpick is being used with the other.Toothpicks are frequently used between courses as it is believed that the tastes of one course should not be allowed to mar one#39;s enjoyment of the next course.在饭桌上使用牙签是另一种标准的做法。与大多数亚洲国家一样,礼貌地剔除食物残渣的方法就是用一只手掩住嘴,同时用另一只手使用牙签。牙签经常在各道菜之间的间隙使用,因为人们认为一道菜的口味不能影响对下一道菜的享用。What is the proper way to use chopsticks使用筷子的恰当方式The Chopstick is a miracle among the creations of Chinese food culture. The Chinese nation invented chopsticks in the Spring and Autumn Period(770一476).They can perform whatever the fingers perform,and they are exempt from either heat or cold. Furthermore,when using chopsticks,one actually uses more than 30 joints,including the shoulders,arms and fingers .and 50 muscles.筷子是中国饮食文化发明中的一个奇迹。中华民族是在春秋时代(公元前770一公元前476年)发明筷子的。筷子可以起到手指的所有功能,而且还不会被烫到或冻到。此外,当使用筷子的时候,人们实际上使用到30多个关节,这其中包括肩膀、胳膊以及手指,还有50块肌肉。This utensil helps the dinner to really relish his or her food. Eating in China is always associated with chopsticks,acclaimed by many Western scholars as a hallmark of Oriental civilization. The use of chopsticks with ease will add to the enjoyment of the delicacies.How to use them maybe a problem and here are our methods and suggestions that may be helpful.这种器具有助于就餐者真正喜爱自己的食物。在中国,吃饭总是要使用筷子的,西方学者称筷子是东方文明的里程碑。轻松地使用筷子将增加享用美食时的乐趣。如何使用筷子可能是个难题,我们在这里介绍的方法和建议可能十分有益:It is difficult to describe how to use chopsticks. First,place one chopstick on the third finger and clip it with the thumb;then clip the other between the index finger and the middle finger. When picking up food,use the upper chopstick and keep it flexible like a clipper. But,as the saying goes,it is easier said than done,and practice makes perfect. You may wonder if there is any yardstick by which to measure your proficiency of using chopsticks. Well,try peanuts. If you can pick up a peanut,then you are fine; If you can pick up two,then,congratulations!很难说明如何来使用筷子。首先要将一只筷子放在第三根手指上,然后用大拇指夹住它;然后将另一根筷子夹在食指与中指之间。当夹起食物的时候,要使用筷子的上端并且要保持它的灵活性,就像一只夹子一样。但是有一句老话说得好,说起来容易做起来难;还有一句老话叫熟能生巧。你可能想知道有没有什么标准能够衡量使用筷子的熟练程度。那么就试一试花生米吧。如果你能夹起一粒花生米,那么就很好了。如果能夹起两粒花生米,那么就值得恭喜了!It is considerately convenient to have noodles with chopsticks. Then you can wind noodle ths lightly but firmly,to avoid splattering soup or sauces in the bowl. For the first time,some may slide off the sticks,but the slight lapses are inevitable and practice makes perfect. After practice you will become adept at picking up all sorts of morsels from plates.用筷子吃面条是相当方便的。这样你就可以将面条轻轻地、稳稳地绕起来避免碗里的汤或调料溅出来。第一次用筷子的时候,有些人的筷子可能会滑掉,但是小小的失误是不可避免的,而且熟能生巧。经过一番练习之后,你就会十分擅长从盘子里面将各种食物夹起来了。When the dishes are positioned on the table,usually the first to help themselves should be the hosts or the elderly. Do not take too much once,or return your food to the plate. Try to avoid the collision of chopsticks with those of your neighbors since they are longer than forks or knives.当盘子放在桌子上的时候,通常最先夹菜的人应当是主人或长者。一次不要夹得太多,否则就将你的食物放回到盘子里:由于筷子要比叉子或刀子更长,因此尽量避免让你的筷子与坐你旁边人的筷子相碰。Do not drum or tap bowls and plates with chopsticks especially when you are a guest, because people believe that is the humble behavior of beggars when they beg for food不要用筷子敲碗和盘子,尤其是当你是客人时,因为人们认为这是乞丐在要饭时的下贱行为。Never insert chopsticks upright onto the vessels for food,as this will be viewed as an evil presage and will sustain the disapproval of the seniors. The reason is that, it is the unique way to show the esteem and care for the dead. long ago it was a tradition in China to worship their ancestors with offerings of food. However, in consideration that the dead could not use chopsticks smoothly, the living had to insert them at an upright angle.决不要将筷子垂直地插在乘放食物的器皿上,因为这会被认为是一种邪恶的预兆,而且将会引起老人的不满。其原因在于这是一种表达对亡灵的尊敬和关照的特殊方式。很久以前,中国拜祭祖先的传统就是献祭食物。但是考虑到亡灵可能不会灵巧地使用筷子,活人必须将筷子笔直地插着。Avoid sucking the end of a chopstick or keeping it in mouth for a long time. Never point at someone with a chopstick and do not use it to prick food in order to pick it up. These are also regarded as impolite.要避免吮吸筷子的末端,还不能将筷子放在嘴里时间过长。不要用筷子去指着别人,也不要通过用筷子戳在食物上面把食物夹起来。这些也被认为是不礼貌的行为:The handling of rice with chopsticks is also known to present problems, unless the rice has been dampened by juices from main dishes and is therefore more manageable. The socially-acceptable method for eating rice is to bring one#39;s bowl close to one#39;s mouth and quickly scoop the rice into it with one#39;s chopsticks.用筷子来吃米饭也会带来难题,除非用主菜的汤汁将米饭濡湿,因而使米饭更容易用筷子夹起。社会所认可的吃米饭的方法就是将自己的碗凑到嘴边上,然后迅速地用筷子将米饭拨到嘴里。One chopstick craft which a visitor is not advised to try is the deboning of a fish when its top half has been eaten,without turning it over. The careful separation of the fish skeleton from the lower half of the flesh will usually be performed by the host or a waiter.有一种使用筷子的技艺,不过我们不建议游客使用。这就是当一条鱼的上半部分被吃掉时,用筷子去掉鱼的骨头同时不把鱼翻身。通常是由主人或务员来小心地将鱼的骨架与下半部分的肉分开。The reason why a fish will never be turned over is a traditional superstition of South China#39;s fishing families-bad luck would ensue and a fishing boat would capsize if the fish were up-ended.为什么不能把鱼翻身呢?这是华南渔民家庭的一个传统的习俗—如果把鱼翻身的话坏运气就会接踵而至,而且渔船就会翻掉。There are superstitions associated with chopsticks too. If you find an uneven pair at your table setting,it means you are going to miss a boat,plane or train. Dropping chopsticks will inevitably bring bad luck, os will laying them across each other.Crossed chopsticks are,however, permissible in a“dim sum; restaurant.Your waiter will cross them to show that your bill has been settled,or you can dog the same to show the waiter that you have finished and are y to pay the bill.还有许多与筷子有关的习俗。如果你发现桌子上摆的餐具中筷子不成对的话,这就意味着你赶不上船、飞机、或是火车。如果筷子掉下来的话,就会不可避免地遇上坏运气,而且筷子交叉着放也会带来厄运、。但是在点心店里却允许将筷子交叉。务员会将筷子交叉起来,这样就表示你的账单已经结过了;你也可以这样做,这样就告诉务员你已经吃完了并且准备埋单。 /201506/379054

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