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栏目简介:Hundreds of schools in town are taking part in a two-month-long soccer tournament as part of the country#39;s efforts to boost skills at the grass-roots level. The tournament is broken into four tiers, with nearly 300 primary schools, middle schools, high schools and universities taking part. Song Wenjing takes a look. Article/201703/496727In research studies calcium has been shown对钙质的研究表明to play a preventative role in colon cancer钙质对结肠癌和乳腺癌起到防治作用and breast cancer, especially breast cancer尤其是对绝经女性的in pre-menopausal women. The exact mechanism乳腺癌防治by which calcium prevents cancer is unclear.钙质防治癌症的具体原理还不清楚At the biochemical level it is clear that calcium在生物化学层面,我们清楚的是binds to both bile and fatty acids in the钙与胃肠道中的胆汁和脂肪酸结合gastrointestinal tract to form insoluble complexes.形成了无法溶解的复合物Because the calcium is bound to the acids it reduces因为钙与酸的结合the ability of the acids to damage cells located降低了酸的能力in the lining of the colon. Calcium also acts directly破坏结肠粘膜的癌细胞in reducing cell proliferation in the lining of钙还能直接抑制癌细胞在结肠粘膜的扩散the colon. Both mechanisms are thought to contribute这两种原理都持了钙质to calcium#39;s prevention of cancer.能够防治癌症的理论A strong relationship between calcium intake 2002年 国家癌症研究院发表的and colorectal cancer risk was found护士健康研究和保健专业医生in the participants of the Nurses#39; Health Study随访研究and Health Professionals#39; Follow-up Study从研究对象身上发现了钙摄入量published by the Journal of the National Cancer和直肠癌风险之间的密切关系Institute in 2002. In this study researchers在这个研究中analyzed 135 thousand men and women and研究人员分析了男性和女性共13万5千人found that people who consumed 700 milligrams发现每天摄入700毫克钙的人群of calcium per day reduced their risk of colorectal与每天摄入500毫克钙的人群相比cancer by 35 to 45% when compared to people结肠直肠癌的风险降低了with intakes of 500 mg of calcium per day or less.35%到45%This effect was only recognized in the研究发现,这一效果只会发生在结肠的末梢distal area of the colon and intake showed在近端结肠no effect on the proximal colon.没有防治效果Another study done by the National Institutes另一个相关研究of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet由美国国家卫生研究院下属的and Health Study which was published in 2009美国退休人员饮食和健康研究协会完成by Archives of Internal Medicine showed并于2009年由《国家内科医学档案》发表that high intakes of total calcium, dietary calcium研究显示总钙,膳食钙和钙补充剂的高摄取量and calcium supplements were associated with能够使男性的结肠直肠癌风险降低20%20% lower risk of colorectal cancer among men使女性的这一风险and 30% lower risk among women.降低30%A study published in 1998 by Cancer 《肿瘤流行病学生物标志物和预防》Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention于1998年发表的研究调查了examined women living in Iowa.居住在爱荷华州的女性This study compared 34000 women divided into研究将34000名女性分成两组来作比较two groups. One group consumed每组成员每天摄取大约1280毫克的钙质approximately 1,280 mg of calcium or more a day或者更多,另一组成员每天摄取800毫克钙and was compared to a second group of women或者更少with calcium intakes of 800 mg per day or less.两组成员摄取的钙质Total intakes in the two groups were from both来源于膳食或者钙补充剂diet and supplements. The group of women摄取更多钙质的女性who consumed the higher intake of calcium结肠癌风险were associated with a 41% reduction减少了41%in colon cancer risk while the group of women相比之下,摄取800毫克或更少钙质的which consumed calcium intakes of 800 mg or less另一组女性的结肠癌风险per day showed no reduction in colon cancer risk.没有降低The Nurses#39; Health Study published in 20022002年,护士健康研究by the Journal of National Cancer Institute发表在美国国家癌症研究院期刊上included 3000 women and concluded研究对象包括3000名女性higher calcium intakes of more than 800 mg研究结果表明per day reduced the risk of breast cancer未绝经的女性每天摄取大于800毫克的钙质in pre-menopausal women. This study compared能够降低患乳腺癌的风险two groups of women where one group consumed该研究比较了两组女性a higher amount of calcium of 800 mg per day or more一组女性每天摄取800毫克或更多的钙质and the second group of women consumed另一组女性每天仅摄取a lower amount of calcium of 200 mg a day or less.200毫克或更少的钙The group of women with the higher calcium intakes摄取更多钙质的那组女性consumed calcium specifically from dairy products特别要从乳制品中获取钙and in particular low fat or non-fat milk,尤其是低脂或脱脂牛奶yogurt and cheese. The researchers concluded酸奶和奶酪,研究人员获得结果that increased calcium intake of 800 mg per day每天800毫克的钙摄入量from dairy sources reduced the risk of breast cancer能够减少未绝经女性患乳腺癌的风险in pre-menopausal women but但是对已经绝经的女性not in post-menopausal women.没有效果 Article/201508/392946栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201510/403718

Okay, I#39;m wet, cold,and I#39;ve got to act fast before I start losing all feeling.我湿透了而且全身冰冷 在我失去知觉之前 我得快速行动Problem is I don#39;t want to put these clothes on when I#39;m this wet.问题在于 我不想在身体湿漉漉的时候 穿上衣It would just make the clothes wet.I#39;m gonna get into the snow and roll in it.这只会把衣弄湿 所以我得扑向积雪 在上面打滚And what powder snow will do is its crystals will absorb a lot of the moisture,这样一来 积雪 会将我身上大量的水分吸走Just take some of that off me so I keep my clothes dry.没有了水分 衣就不会湿了Okay, let#39;s get an outer shell on.The snow has done its job.Now to get my clothes back on.好的 快穿上我的保暖盔甲 积雪已经发挥了它的功效 现在赶快穿上衣Oh, god.Actually feels like my toes and fingers have been stuck in a fire.我的老天爷 事实上 我感觉我的手指和脚趾 都像在被火灼烧着一样It#39;s a weird sensation.Extreme cold feels sort of like extreme heat.这是一种不可思议的感觉 冷到了极致就仿佛是热到了极致It#39;s just really, really painful and almost unusable.这真的非常的痛苦而且让我难以动弹Once you leave the freezing water,your body starts pumping blood back to the extremities.一旦你离开冰冷的海水 你的身体就开始向手和脚供血It#39;s known as the afterdrop,and with the blood diverted,your core temperature can then plummet.You need fire and fast.这个现象被称为复温 但是随着血液的回流 你的体内的温度会开始下降 因此你需要尽快生一堆火Oh, my...They always talk about that golden five minutes after you#39;ve been in extreme cold water.我的老天... 人们常说 在极其冰冷的水中待过之后 有一段时间被称为;黄金五分钟;Even though you#39;re cold,what you have working for you is adrenaline.尽管你冷的不行 现在正是肾上腺素发挥作用的时候You#39;ve got to use that adrenaline just to fire you,to keep you going until you#39;ve got a lifesaving fire.你需要肾上腺素给你能量 让你能够为自己点燃救命之火 Article/201703/496145

Here we#39;re looking at the back of a skull of a child,这是一个儿童头盖骨的枕骨面probably about ten years old when he died,这个孩子死时大概10岁and there are two holes in these bones.这块骨头上有两个洞I was so surprised to令我震惊的是find that the spacing between those two holes我发现这两个洞之间的距离is matched almost exactly几乎完全等于by the spacing between the lower canines of a fossil leopard美洲豹下颚化石上两颗犬齿间的距离from the same part of the cave.这块化石同样是在这个洞里被发现的That tells us that this child was killed by a leopard.这个发现说明 孩子是被美洲豹咬死的But in more recent parts of the cave,在洞里离我们年代更近的部分he#39;s found bones with the marks of stone tools on them -他发现一些带有石器痕迹的遗骨proof that our ancestors were eating meat.明了我们祖先有吃肉食What that indicates to us这块遗骨告诉我们is that people were butchering the meat off this bone人们曾把肉从骨头上剥离and their stone knives went through that meat他们的石刀穿过皮肉and contacted this bone surface.然后与骨头表面接触We also have percussion damage on these bones这块骨头上还存在碰撞产生的损伤where people broke open the bones人们曾砸开骨头to get out the edible marrow from the inside of those bones.以获取骨头里可以吃的骨髓 Article/201505/375205

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